Insight into c-di-GMP Regulation in Anammox Aggregation in Response to Alternating Feed Loadings
Guo, Yongzhao; Liu, Sitong; Tang, Xi; Wang, Chao; Niu, Zhao ; Feng, Ying
Environmental Science & Technology, 51(16): 9155-9164
摘要: Substrate concentrations generally fluctuate in wastewaters. However, how anammox biomass behaves to overcome the stress of alternating feed loadings remains unclear. Here, we combined long-term reactor operation, batch tests, 16S rRNA transcript sequencing, and metabolomics analysis to investigate the aggregation of anammox biomass under the regulation of c-di-GMP, a key second messenger, in response to alternating feed loadings. We demonstrated that the aggregation process was significantly faster under alternating loadings and was significantly correlated with higher levels of c-di-GMP and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) production. The increase in c-di-GMP was positively correlated with a higher relative transcript expression level in the c-di-GMP pathway-dependent community. The targeted metabolomics results indicated that the increased production of fructose 6-phosphate and UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, the precursor substances for the synthesis of exopolysaccharides, was induced by higher levels of c-di-GMP. Consequently, the granulation process was accelerated via EPS production. Higher levels of intracellular hydrophobic amino acids were also positively correlated with increased extracellular protein levels, considering the significant increase in peptides under alternating loadings. On the basis of our findings, we believe that c-di-GMP regulation and EPS production of the anammox biomass are important mechanisms to enhance its tolerance against unfavorable feed stress. These results highlight the role of c-di-GMP in anammox biomass as it works to survive in unfavorable niches.
关键词：Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation; Cholerae Biofilm Formation; In-Situ Activity; Pseudomonas-Aeruginosa; Vibrio-Cholerae; Oxidizing Bacteria; Induced Dispersion; Aerobic Granules; Pilz Domain; Protein